On the second day of India Today Conclave 2019 Mumbai, Dr Murali Doraiswamy, who is a Physician and Futurist at the Duke University School of Medicine discussed the discoveries of the human brain and also gave a brief discussion about the genome and why it is the new gold.
“There is an old saying about genetics. Genetics loads the gun lifestyle pulls the trigger all of us are different because of our different genes. We have 23 pairs of Chromosomes and between then we have 3 to 6 billions of bits of coded information in our genes, said Doraiswamy.
“It took about 20 years ago when scientists were trying to track this information it took them 13 years and 400 million dollars to map the human genome,” Doraiswamy added.
California broke the geniuses book of world record
A few months ago a team in California broke the geniuses book of world records were within 24 hours they were able to do whole genome sequencing in individual.
Murali explained a situation where a baby comes to the hospital with unexplained seizures the researchers were not only able to sequence that baby’s genome. They used artificial intelligence to match that against all known genetic inheritance they were able to find a treatment said Doraiswamy.
“This is were we have advanced from 400 million dollars to about a thousand dollars to map a geno,” said Doraiswamy
He further talks about the gene-editing technique-‘crispr’.
According to a professor, there is also a gene-editing technique now called crispr which is derived from bacteria. Bacteria have this to protect themselves from the viruses from which you can to modify to edit the gene and then to insert new genetic material into a human being such as a treatment to a drug.
Chinese have gone a step further with the experiment
Chinese people have done this particular experiment and also have gone a step further. They have inserted a very unique gene that has found in human brains into the embryos of monkeys and they have delivered six monkey baby with this human brain gene out of which four developed have scanned the monkey’s brain they have seen the monkey’s brains developed in a way the human brain babies are developed.
“We have crossed new frontiers ethical issues the Indian government has recently convened a panel for the first to govern and regulate this technology,” said Doraiswamy.
Designing a personality is going to be possible?
Murali personally believes that I must reserve of serious personality matter of and that why it is very important for us to have an ethical sort of framework many countries are not ready for the implosion of the techniques.
Murali describes a situation where he has published using the technique in the family that have five generations of early-onset familial dementia. It was called fatal initial insomnia neurological condition caused by a genetic meditation where the person cannot sleep and as a result, they developed dementia they die. This technique was used in the mother to select the preimplantation diagnosis to ensure that she will be able to have a child-free of this particular imitation.
“Irregular heartbeats is the biggest risk factor of stokes,” said Doraiswamy
Emergence of technology
Talking about the technology Doraiswamy said that the technologies are emerging so fast that they are outpacing all regulatory attempts to put a sort of fence around them so I said on a world of council economic form that is a reason some ethical guidelines for how to use neurotechnologies but there is an incredible array of advance advances happening now.
Doraiswamy also talked about the Neuro link and how it is aiming to develop a brain through to communicate directly to the internet without any phone or anything.
Doraiswamy called Neuro link as early-stage experiments.
He talked about the studies in animals now where they have developed now a mesh that can be implanted on the brain and the brain develops along with the mesh and that mesh can be used for the communication.
Compared study with fiction movies
“It’s almost like a kind of science fiction movies coming true. I don’t know where they are headed in that direction as a definite future but I can see the definite potential for treating diseases,” said Doraiswamy
He further talked about the parkencense diseases where the patient has an intractable tremmours there is already a type of brain stimulation called deep brain stimulation that can actually be implanted a pacemaker that can permanently arrest those stemmers.
Technology for the paralysed people
He further informed about the audience about the treat seizures chip another chip that can be put into the brain to treat seizures, this is what is called a closed-loop system. It can detect when a part of the brain goes into an aplitic seizure and it senses an electrical signal to stop the seizures before it occurs.
So this is a kind of technology that is coming obviously for the paralysed people.
“I can see the huge benefit if they use their mind to command to change the TV remotes or ask assistants to hold them at their daily chores. So that’s likely to be the first application in the civilian, said Doraiswamy
What are micro-biomes?
Microbiomes is all of the organism that lives in your human body, there are trillions of organism in your skin, in your intestinal tract in a number of your organs possibility in your brain. The organism in the gut influences everything from mood to brain development or the rest of diseases.